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Unit 3 Vocabulary


a process or set of rules that are followed


stories that someone tells about his/her own experience or the experience of someone he/she knows


joined together, often in a working relationship


where we take random samples of really large samples


a reason for an action or condition

closed-ended questions

give a fixed set of choices

confidence interval

an estimated range of values which is likely to include an unknown population parameter, the estimated range being calculated from a given set of sample data

confounding factors

an “extra” variable that you didn’t account for

control group

the group that does not receive a treatment

cost limitations

the limitation of funds or money


information, or observations, that have been gathered and recorded

data farm

a physical space where high capacity servers are placed to store large amounts of data


a system of moral principles


one method of data collection; something that can be repeated that has a set of possible results


how easy or difficult it is to do something

HTML (Hyper Text Markup Language)

a standardized system for tagging text files to achieve font, color, graphic, and hyperlink effects on web pages


the process of drawing conclusions about an underlying population based on a sample or subset of the data


a data type which is measured along a scale, in which each point is placed at equal distance from one another

margin of error

tells you how many percentage points your results will differ from the real population value

observational study

a data collection method in which subjects are observed and outcomes are recorded

open-ended questions

offer a free-response/text approach


the variable that the treatment is meant to influence; this is sometimes known as the response, or dependent, variable


represented excessively especially; having representatives in a proportion higher than the average


any number that summarizes a population

Participatory Sensing

an approach to data collection and interpretation in which individuals, acting alone or in groups, use their personal mobile devices and web services to systematically explore interesting aspects of their worlds ranging from health to culture


consists of all of the people we want to learn something about

random assignment

subjects are randomly assigned to either the treatment or control group

random sample

a sample that is chosen randomly

random sampling

a sample that is chosen randomly

representative sample

a subset of a population that seeks to accurately reflect the characteristics of the larger group

research question

the question to be answered by the experiment


people (or objects) that are selected from the population

sampling bias

occurs when the resulting samples tend to produce results that are influenced in one particular direction


when participants answer questions themselves


a converter that measures a physical quantity and converts it into a signal, which can be read by an observer or by an instrument


a term used for numbers that summarize a sample


people or objects that are participating in the experiment


an investigation about the characteristics of a given population by means of collecting data from a sample of that population and estimating their characteristics through the systematic use of statistical methodology

survey sample

people who are asked to participate in a survey


the variable names are stored at the beginning of the code, in between <th> and </th>


an idea used to explain a situation


the variable that is deliberately manipulated to investigate its influence on the outcome; this is sometimes known as the explanatory, or independent, variable

treatment group

the group of subjects that receive the treatment


something that responds to an event so that an action can occur


a subset of a population that holds a smaller percentage within a significant subgroup than the subset holds in the general population

XML (Extensible Markup Language)

a popular format for storing data on the internet; it creates readable web pages, and also because it allows programmers to easily update values in the data table if those values change